In 1763, the French colony of Louisiana had passed into the control of the Spanish as a result of the treaty that concluded the Seven Years War, the first global war. Prior to the American Revolution, the British government had tried unsuccessfully to prevent settlers moving across the Appalachian Mountains into the West. The American Revolution insured American national expansion, and, in the last years of the eighteenth century, the use of the Mississippi River and the port of New Orleans had become vital to the young United States. On October 27, 1795, the American government had signed a treaty at Madrid with the King of Spain insuring the rights of Americans to use the Spanish-controlled port. In 1800, Napoleon had begun negotiating with the Spanish king to regain Louisiana. Alarmed at the prospect of the aggressive Napoleon gaining control of Louisiana and its impact on American interests, Thomas Jefferson was seriously considering declaring war on the French. In an attempt to prevent war, the two countries began discussions. Jefferson appointed Robert R. Livingston and James Monroe as his emissaries. Napoleon sent Francis Barb� Marbois, the Minister of the Public Treasury. | 57 | | Article II stipulates that all islands adjacent to Louisiana, public or vacant lands, and all public buildings and fortifications that are not private property are included in the purchase. All archives and public papers will be transferred to the United States as well.
Article III stipulates that all the inhabitants of Louisiana will become citizens of the United States as soon as possible with all the rights of American citizens. In the meantime, they will continue to enjoy their liberty, property and professed religion. | |
The President of the United States of America and the First Consul of the French Republic in the name of the French People desiring to remove all Source of misunderstanding relative to objects of discussion mentioned in the Second and fifth articles of the Convention of the 8th Vend�miaire on 9/30 September 1800 relative to the rights claimed by the United States in virtue of the Treaty concluded at Madrid the 27 of October 1795, between His Catholic Majesty & the Said United States, & willing to Strengthen the union and friendship which at the time of the said Convention was happily reestablished between the two nations have respectively named their Plenipotentiaries to wit The President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate of the Said States; Robert R. Livingston Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States and James Monroe Minister and Envoy extraordinary of the Said States near the Government of the French Republic; And the First Consul in the name of the French people, Citizen Francis Barb� Marbois Minister of the public treasury who after having respectively exchanged their full powers have agreed to the following Articles.
Whereas by the Article the third of the Treaty concluded at St Ildefonso the 9th Vend�miaire on 1st October 1800 between the First Consul of the French Republic and his Catholic Majesty it was agreed as follows.
His Catholic Majesty promises and engages on his part to cede to the French Republic six months after the full and entire execution of the conditions and Stipulations herein relative to his Royal Highness the Duke of Parma, the Colony or Province of Louisiana with the Same extent that it now has in the hand of Spain, & that it had when France possessed it; and Such as it Should be after the Treaties subsequently entered into between Spain and other States
And whereas in pursuance of the Treaty and particularly of the third article the French Republic has an incontestible title to the domain and to the possession of the said TerritoryThe First Consul of the French Republic desiring to give to the United States a strong proof of his friendship doth hereby cede to the United States in the name of the French Republic for ever and in full Sovereignty the said territory with all its rights and appurtenances as fully and in the Same manner as they have been acquired by the French Republic in virtue of the above mentioned Treaty concluded with his Catholic Majesty.
In the cession made by the preceeding article are included the adjacent Islands belonging to Louisiana all public lots and Squares, vacant lands and all public buildings, fortifications, barracks and other edifices which are not private property.--The Archives, papers & documents relative to the domain and Sovereignty of Louisiana and its dependances will be left in the possession of the Commissaries of the United States, and copies will be afterwards given in due form to the Magistrates and Municipal officers of such of the said paper and documents as may be necessary to them.
The inhabitants of the ceded territory shall be incorporated in the Union of the United States and admitted as soon as possible according to the principles of the federal Constitution to the enjoyment of all these rights, advantages and immunities of citizens of the United States, and in the mean time they shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property and the Religion which they profess.
There Shall be Sent by the Government of France a Commissary to Louisiana to the end that he do every act necessary as well to receive from the Officers of his Catholic Majesty the Said country and its dependances in the name of the French Republic if it has not been already done as to transmit it in the name of the French Republic to the Commissary or agent of the United States.
Immediately after the ratification of the present Treaty by the President of the United States and in case that of the first Consul's shall have been previously obtained, the commissary of the French Republic shall remit all military posts of New Orleans and other parts of the ceded territory to the Commissary or Commissaries named by the President to take possessionthe troops whether of France or Spain who may be there shall cease to occupy any military post from the times of taking possession and shall be embarked aS possible in the course of three months after the ratification of this treaty.
The United States promise to execute Such treaties and articles as may have been agreed between Spain and the tribes and nations of Indians until by mutual consent of the United States and the said tribes or nations other Suitable articles Shall have been agreed upon.
As it is reciprocally advantageous to the commerce of France and the United States to encourage the communication of both nations for a limited time in the country ceded by the present treaty until general arrangements relative to commerce of both nations may be agreed on; it has been agreed between the contracting parties that the French Ships coming directly from France or any of her colonies loaded only with the produce and manufactures of her Said Colonies; and the Ships of Sp[Spain coming directly from Spain or her Colonies shall be admitted during the Space of twelve years in the Port of New Orleans and in all other legal ports-of -entry within the ceded territory in The Same manner as the Ships of the United Statesa coming directly from France or Spain or any of their Colonies without being Subject to any other or greater duty or merchandize or other or greater tonnage than that paid by the citizenxs of the United States.
During that Space of time above mention no other nation Shall have a right to the Same privileges in the Ports of the ceded territory the twelve years Shall commence three months after the exchange of ratifications if it Shall take place in France or three months after it Shall have been notified at Paris to the French Government if it Shall take place in the United States; It is however well understood that the object of the about article is to favor the manufactures, Commerce, freight and navigation of France and of Spain So far as relates to the importations that the French and Spanish Shall make into the Said Ports of the United States Without in Any Sort affecting the regulations that the United States may make concerning the exportation of the produce and merchandize of the United States, or any right they may have to make Such regulations.
In future and for ever after the expiration of the twelve years, the Ships of France shall be treated upon the footing of the most favoured nations in the ports above mentioned.
The particular Convention Signed this day by the respective Ministers, having for its object to provide for the payment of debts due to the Citizens of the United States by the French Republic priior to the 30th Sept. 1800 (8th Vend�miaire an 9) is approved and to have its execution in the Same manner as if it had been inserted in this present treaty, and it Shall be ratified in the same form and in the Same time So that the one Shall not be ratified distinct from the other.
Another particular Convention Signed at the Same date as the present treaty relative to a definitive rule between the contracting parties is in the like manner approved and will be ratified in the Same form , and in the Same time and jointly.
The present treaty Shall be ratified in good and due form and the ratifivations Shall be exchanged in the Space of Six months after the date of the Signature by the Ministers Plenipotentiary or Sooner if possible.
In faith whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have Signed these articles in the French and English languages; declaring nevertheless that the present Treaty was originally agreed to in the French language; and have thereunto affixed their Seals.
Done at Paris the tenth day of Floreal in the eleventh year of the French Republic; and the 30th of April 1803.
Robt R Livingston